Gredebäck, G., Kochukhova, O. (2010) Goal Anticipation during Action Observation is Influenced by Synonymous Action Capabilities, a Puzzling Developmental Study. Experimental Brain Research, 202, 493-497.

Eighteen- and 25-month-old human toddlers’ ability to manually solve a puzzle and their ability to antici- pate the goal during observation of similar actions were investigated. Results demonstrate that goal anticipation during action observation is dependent on manual ability, both on a group level (only 25-month-olds solved the man- ual task and anticipated the goal during observation) and individually within the older age group (rxy = 0.53). These Wndings suggests a connection between manual ability and the ability to anticipate the goal of others’ actions in tod- dlers, in accordance with the direct matching hypothesis.