Frick, M., Johansson, M., Bohlin, G., & Brocki, K.C (2018) Temperament and Cognitive Regulation during the First 3 Years of Life as Predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity at 6 Years Journal of Attention Disorders.

OBJECTIVE: With a wish to identify early markers of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, we examined effects of temperament and cognitive regulation, during the first 3 years of life, on later inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior. METHOD: Temperament and cognitive regulation were assessed at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in 66 typically developing children. Teachers rated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity at 6 years. RESULTS: Temperamental activity at all studied time points was predictive of later hyperactive/impulsive behavior, thus appearing as a stable marker thereof. Activity at 12 months was also predictive of inattention, whereas temperamental persistence was correlated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, but with no independent contributions. No significant relations between cognitive regulation and the outcome measures were found. CONCLUSION: Our findings add to the scarce literature proposing that markers of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior in early school age can be found within the first years of life, using parental ratings of child temperament.